Science Experiments involving Vaporization
Vapor is a substance that is suspended in the air. Vapors are gases that come from the heating of a liquid in a process known as vaporization. There are three states of matter that we can see and touch every day: solid, liquid, and gas. Solids resist changing shape or volume. Examples of solids include wood, metal, ceramics, and ice. Liquids flow freely and can take the shape of the container they inhabit. Water is the most common liquid on Earth and can be found within mixtures everywhere, from blood to beer. Gas has a larger amount of space between particles and the ability to expand. Without a set volume and with a much lower density than the other two states, gas is very hard to observe. But through experimentation, people can see these three states of matter and watch how they are made and how they behave.
Here are some activities to explore to bring people up to speed on evaporation.
Water vapor can turn to liquid through condensation, and one way to prompt condensation is by lowering the air pressure.
This project is a fun way to make cool decorations in the house.
Applying heat to ice can turn it into water, then vapor. When you add salt to the ice, the salt dissolves in the water, then is left behind when the water evaporates.
Static electricity can affect water, and this can be shown using simple household tools.
This experiment isolates the condensation phase of the water cycle. Lowering the temperature brings water molecules closer together, causing the vapor to turn into a liquid.
Cloud formation relies on the presence of moisture, the right temperature, and particles around which water molecules can condense. This experiment shows this process in a simple way.
When pressure is reduced, so is water's boiling point. This is why water boils at lower temperatures at higher altitudes. This experiment shows just that in a closed environment. Basic laboratory equipment will be needed. This experiment is great for classrooms!
Water is always moving between being a liquid and a vapor in a process called the water cycle.
With cold, dry weather comes the opportunity to turn boiling water into ice instantly. The vapor that comes from heating water plays a part in this phenomenon. Care must be taken here to avoid burns.
When it's very cold out, this experiment involving the freezing of water can produce beautiful orbs.
This is an interesting experiment with even more interesting results. Only basic equipment is needed.
It's fun to experiment with water, pressure, and surface tension, but it's even more interesting when you can make it into a prank.
This experiment lets you create a cloud in a jar.
Explore the capillary action of liquid water with this activity that shows how water can "walk" using a paper towel.
One way to replicate the water cycle on a small level is to make a terrarium.
You can measure different environmental factors' effects on the weather by building a weather station.
Turning water into a vapor can help to remove impurities. Try these different filtration methods to see how they work to filter out different substances.
This experiment purifies water without a solid-state filter and has some very interesting follow-up questions.
Construct an instrument to measure humidity using human hair.
Barometers measure air pressure. Low air pressure can be a sign that cloud systems and storms are moving in.
This technique can be used to harvest water from the ground using evaporation and condensation.
This investigation explores the heat of fusion for water and the effects of salt water vs. distilled water on melting ice.
Take a look at what is really going on in a glass when you pour soda over ice.
Enthalpy changes within a system are measured by both heat that has been absorbed and heat released within systems of constant pressure. This experiment uses methanol, ethanol, and water to measure the differences in enthalpy between the three. This is an advanced experiment.
The Clausius-Clapeyron equation is used to characterize transitions between phases of matter. This experiment uses the equation and is not for beginners.
Vaporization can affect any liquid under the right conditions. In this case, an ad agency produced a cloud made from tequila to promote travel to Mexico.
Researchers are studying how cosmic rays affect clouds and atmospheric aerosols in an effort to better understand climate change.